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The most successful time of the year for grafting fruit trees is spring. During the grafting process, two methods can be used - copulation and budding. Each of the methods has its own characteristics and advantages.
- Copulation. Competent preparation is the key to success
- We proceed directly to the process of grafting an apple tree
- The main stages of tree care
Copulation. Competent preparation is the key to success
The concept of "copulating trees" should be understood as a grafting method using a cutting. Note that this method of grafting trees is ideal for the spring period, as it is considered the most gentle. Grafting of new trees can be compared to an operation. In the course of work, it is necessary to act very carefully so as not to damage the structure of the tree and the cutting. In modern horticulture, copulation is used not only to "rejuvenate" the tree. It also serves for more serious matters: growing dwarf trees, healing damage to the bark, replacing a low-value variety with a more profitable and productive one.
What may be needed for copulation?
- Shank. Try to pick up the most "strong" branch, it should have as many buds as possible
- Garden var (you can cook it yourself or buy a ready-made one)
- Garden fine saw
- Professional grafting knife
- Polyethylene film for strapping
- Fabric material
You need to prepare a stalk for grafting in winter. It is during the winter period that the trees are at rest. Choose a twig 30-50 centimeters long. Make the cut at a slight angle. The stalk can be stored in a dark basement by first placing the twig in a bowl with damp sawdust. Before copulating, wash your hands and tools with laundry soap. This way, you can avoid contaminating the tree. Do not touch the "open" part of the cutting with your hands, this way you will avoid "pollution" of the tree.
We proceed directly to the process of grafting an apple tree
There are several ways to copulate trees, including apples: simple, improved, split grafting. If you are new to gardening, then it is better to give preference to the first option for grafting an apple tree. Firstly, simple copulation does not require professional skills from you, and secondly, it takes place without "unnecessary" troubles.
Video about spring grafting of an apple tree:
How is an apple tree grafted with a simple copulation?
- Remember that the rootstock and the scion must be even and the same. Try to cut at the same angle
- Attach the cutting to the stock (you need to do this as quickly as possible so that the slices do not have time to oxidize)
- Firmly fasten the rootstock and the scion together (this can be done using fabric or polyethylene material)
- Apply garden varnish if necessary
With the help of ordinary copulation, fruit young trees are grafted at the age of 1 to 3 years. It is important to do the work at a fast pace. If you allow the cuttings to oxidize, most likely the trees will not grow together and the cuttings will dry out completely. Improved copulation gives a stronger bond between the rootstock and the scion. However, some knowledge is required from the gardener. For example, you will need to find out where the cambium is on the tree. Deep cuts are made on the rootstock, and the cutting is inserted there (the method of cambium to cambium must be present, otherwise the vaccination will be canceled).
If the diameter of the branches is completely different, you can use the split grafting. The rootstock is cut "cross to cross" and several cuttings are placed there at once. Such an inoculation will require special attention from the gardener, since the cambium comes into contact with only one part on the cart. We have identified only three methods for copulating an apple tree. Each of them has its own characteristics and advantages. If you are new to gardening - feel free to take up the usual copulation. But remember that this method is only suitable for young trees.
The main stages of tree care
Proper care is the key to a successful and fruitful vaccination. In the first month of the tree's "life", it needs to provide optimal conditions for healing. What should you remember?
- After vaccination, be sure to lubricate the "wound" with garden varnish.
- The purpose of the garden varnish is to prevent the penetration of excess moisture and harmful microorganisms.
- Be sure to wrap the "affected" place with plastic cloth.
- For 20 days, do not unwind or touch the grafting site.
- There should be no fertilizers or watering.
Some budding gardeners use duct tape and a regular plastic bag instead of specialized materials.
This categorically cannot be done, since a "greenhouse effect" is created under the package. The buds will begin to bloom earlier than expected, which will lead to the death of the cuttings. There are quite a number of recipes for making a garden varietal at home. Experts recommend paying attention to "Teploidkiy var", as it does an excellent job with its main task. To prepare a var, you will need:
- 400 grams of rosin
- 150 grams of beeswax
- 100 grams of unsalted animal fat
- A teacup of flaxseed oil
Products need to be melted among themselves (from rosin to linseed oil). The broth should be infused for at least a day before it gets to the open areas of the tree. Grafting a tree is a painstaking task and will require you to have some knowledge and techniques for copulating. As we found out, grafting an apple tree in the spring is best done using ordinary copulation. When properly grafted, the apple tree will give you a good harvest and "rejuvenated" bark. Happy garden experiments!